Verbs are much simpler than in English and use less variants, requiring the use of context. Roots can end in any consonant.


est: root for the verb to be


  • From English: remove -ing from the present active participle (i.e. running -> run, diving -> div, playing -> play)
  • From Latin: use the present stem (i.e. amo, amare -> am; doceo, docere -> doc; dormio, dormire -> dorm)
  • From Spanish: use the infinitive minus its ending (-ar, -er, -ir; i.e. hablar -> hab, jugar -> jug)


  • -e: (EE/AY/silent) Imperative (ex. Go play!)
  • -ig: (IG) Participle: with implied tense and voice (ex. He was running.)
  • -o: (O) Infinitive (ex. I like to play.)
  • -ed: ('D/ID) Past tense indicative (ex. The children played.)
  • -es: (EZ/ES) Present tense indicative (ex. He runs. or He is running.)
  • -il: (IL) Future tense indicative (ex. He will deliver.)


  • previ: (PREH-vee/PREE-vee) Backs a verb tense up. i.e. making a Past (Perfect) into a Pluperfect
  • posti: (POST-ee) Advances a verb tense. i.e. making a Future into a Future-Perfect or Present to Future
  • mus: (MOOS/MUHS/MUS) Adds necessity. i.e. must, or absolutely will when paired with a future-tense verb